A gold seal, apparently the same one awarded by the Chinese emperor, was unearthed on the island of Shikano, at the mouth of Hakata Bay, in
For the histories of these latter two countries since their creation, see Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Since early times the Indian subcontinent appears to have provided an attractive habitat for human occupation. Toward the south it is effectively sheltered by wide expanses of ocean, which tended to isolate it culturally in ancient times, while to the north it is protected by the massive ranges of the Himalayaswhich also sheltered it from the Arctic winds and the air currents of Central Asia.
Only in the northwest and northeast is there easier access by land, and it was through those two sectors that most of the early contacts with the outside world took place. Within the framework of hills and mountains represented by the Indo-Iranian borderlands on the west, the Indo-Myanmar borderlands in the east, and the Himalayas to the north, the subcontinent may in broadest terms be divided into two major divisions: The expansive alluvial plain of the river basins provided the environment and focus for the rise of two great phases of city life: To the south of this zone, and separating it from the peninsula proper, is a belt of hills and forests, running generally from west to east and to this day largely inhabited by tribal people.
This belt has played mainly a negative role throughout Indian history in that it remained relatively thinly populated and did not form the focal point of any of the principal regional cultural developments of South Asia.
However, it is traversed by various routes linking the more-attractive areas north and south of it.
The Narmada Narbada River flows through this belt toward the west, mostly along the Vindhya Rangewhich has long been regarded as the symbolic boundary between northern and southern India.
The northern parts of India represent a series of contrasting regions, each with its own distinctive cultural history and its own distinctive population. In the northwest the valleys of the Baluchistan uplands now largely in BalochistanPak. Its residents, mainly tribal people, are in many respects closely akin to their Iranian neighbours.
The adjacent Indus plains are also an area of extremely low rainfall, but the annual flooding of the river in ancient times and the exploitation of its waters by canal irrigation in the modern period have enhanced agricultural productivity, and the population is correspondingly denser than that of Baluchistan.
The Indus valley may be divided into three parts: East of the latter is the Great Indian, or Thar, Desertwhich is in turn bounded on the east by a hill system known as the Aravali Rangethe northernmost extent of the Deccan plateau region.
Beyond them is the hilly region of Rajasthan and the Malwa Plateau. To the south is the Kathiawar Peninsulaforming both geographically and culturally an extension of Rajasthan. All of these regions have a relatively denser population than the preceding group, but for topographical reasons they have tended to be somewhat isolated, at least during historical times.
East of the Punjab and Rajasthan, northern India develops into a series of belts running broadly west to east and following the line of the foothills of the Himalayan ranges in the north. The southern belt consists of a hilly, forested area broken by the numerous escarpments in close association with the Vindhya Range, including the Bhander, Rewaand Kaimur plateaus.
Between the hills of central India and the Himalayas lies the Ganges River valley proper, constituting an area of high-density population, moderate rainfall, and high agricultural productivity.
Archaeology suggests that, from the beginning of the 1st millennium bce, rice cultivation has played a large part in supporting this population.
The Ganges valley divides into three major parts: The Brahmaputra flows from the northeast, rising from the Tibetan Himalayas and emerging from the mountains into the Assam valley, being bounded on the east by the Patkai Bum Range and the Naga Hills and on the south by the Mikir, KhasiJaintiaand Garo hills.
There is plenty of evidence that influences reached India from the northeast in ancient times, even if they are less prominent than those that arrived from the northwest. Along the Deccan plateau there is a gradual eastward declivity, which dispenses its major river systems—the MahanadiGodavariKrishnaand Kaveri Cauvery —into the Bay of Bengal.
Rising some 3, feet 1, metres or more along the western edge of the Deccan, the escarpment known as the Western Ghats traps the moisture of winds from the Arabian Seamost notably during the southwest monsooncreating a tropical monsoon climate along the narrow western littoral and depriving the Deccan of significant precipitation.
The absence of snowpack in the south Indian uplands makes the region dependent entirely on rainfall for its streamflow. The arrival of the southwest monsoon in June is thus a pivotal annual event in peninsular culture. India from the Paleolithic Period to the decline of the Indus civilization The earliest periods of Indian history are known only through reconstructions from archaeological evidence.
Since the late 20th century, much new data has emerged, allowing a far fuller reconstruction than was formerly possible.
This section will discuss five major periods: The materials available for a reconstruction of the history of India prior to the 3rd century bce are almost entirely the products of archaeological research.
Traditional and textual sources, transmitted orally for many centuries, are available from the closing centuries of the 2nd millennium bce, but their use depends largely on the extent to which any passage can be dated or associated with archaeological evidence.
For the rise of civilization in the Indus valley and for contemporary events in other parts of the subcontinent, the evidence of archaeology is still the principal source of information. Even when it becomes possible to read the short inscriptions of the Harappan seals, it is unlikely that they will provide much information to supplement other sources.
In those circumstances it is necessary to approach the early history of India largely through the eyes of the archaeologists, and it will be wise to retain a balance between an objective assessment of archaeological data and its synthetic interpretation.
The early prehistoric period In the midth century, archaeologists in southern India identified hand axes comparable to those of Stone Age Europe. For nearly a century thereafter, evaluation of a burgeoning body of evidence consisted in the attempt to correlate Indian chronologies with the well-documented European and Mediterranean chronologies.Historians and specialists in Eastern religions generally believe that Sikhism is a syncretistic religion, originally related to the Bhakti movement within Hinduism and the Sufi branch of Islam, to which many independent beliefs and practices were added.: Some Sikhs believe that their religion is a re-purification of Hinduism; they view Sikhism as part of the Hindu religious tradition.
Sikh Dharma began in India a little over years ago and since then Sikhs from the Punjab region of India, who make up less than 2 percent of the population of India, have migrated throughout Europe, the Americas, and Asia, numbering about 28 million caninariojana.com Sikh faith is the 7th largest religion in the world.
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We are an advocate organization comprising of men and women who believe in social change by harnessing the principles of caninariojana.com welcome all those who realize that we are all created equal irrespective of any discriminating factors, without exception.
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