A new conception of nobility, modelled on the Italian Renaissance courts and their concept of the perfect courtierwas beginning to evolve through French literature. Central to this transformation of literature were the salons and literary academies which flourished during the first decades of the 17th century; the expanded role of noble patronage was also significant. The production of literary works such as poems, plays, works of criticism or moral reflection was increasingly considered a necessary practice by nobles, and the creation or patronage of the arts served as a means of social advancement for both non- and marginalized noblemen.
Life[ edit ] William of Ockham was born in Ockham, Surrey in and joined the Franciscan order at an early age. However, William's commentary was not well received by his colleagues,[ citation needed ] or by the Church authorities.
Inhis commentary was condemned as unorthodox by a synod of bishops,[ citation needed ] and he was ordered to AvignonFrance, to defend himself before a papal court.
A theological commission had been asked to review his Commentary on the Sentences, and it was during this that William of Ockham found himself involved in a different debate.
Michael of Cesena had asked William to review arguments surrounding Apostolic poverty. The Franciscans believed that Jesus and his apostles owned no property either individually or in common, and the Rule of Saint Francis commanded members of the order to follow this practice.
Because of the pope's attack on the Rule of Saint Francis, William of Ockham, Michael of Cesena and other leading Franciscans fled Avignon on 26 Mayand eventually took refuge in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Bavariawho was also engaged in dispute with the papacy, and became William's patron.
In return for protection and patronage William wrote treatises that argued for emperor Louis to have supreme control over church and state in the Holy Roman Empire.
After Michael of Cesena 's death inWilliam became the leader of the small band of Franciscan dissidents living in exile with Louis IV. William of Ockham died prior to the outbreak of the plague on 9 April Faith and reason[ edit ] William of Ockham espoused fideismstating that "only faith gives us access to theological truths.
The ways of God are not open to reason, for God has freely chosen to create a world and establish a way of salvation within it apart from any necessary laws that human logic or rationality can uncover.
William incorporated much of the work of some previous theologians, especially Duns Scotus. From Duns Scotus, William of Ockham derived his view of divine omnipotence, his view of grace and justification, much of his epistemology[ citation needed ] and ethical convictions .
However, he also reacted to and against Scotus in the areas of predestination, penance, his understanding of universals, his formal distinction ex parte rei that is, "as applied to created things"and his view of parsimony which became known as Occam's Razor.
Nominalism[ edit ] William of Ockham was a pioneer of nominalismand some consider him the father of modern epistemologybecause of his strongly argued position that only individuals exist, rather than supra-individual universalsessences, or forms, and that universals are the products of abstraction from individuals by the human mind and have no extra-mental existence.
William of Ockham is sometimes considered an advocate of conceptualism rather than nominalism, for whereas nominalists held that universals were merely names, i.
Therefore, the universal concept has for its object, not a reality existing in the world outside us, but an internal representation which is a product of the understanding itself and which "supposes" in the mind the things to which the mind attributes it; that is, it holds, for the time being, the place of the things which it represents.
It is the term of the reflective act of the mind. Hence the universal is not a mere word, as Roscelin taught, nor a sermo, as Peter Abelard held, namely the word as used in the sentence, but the mental substitute for real things, and the term of the reflective process.
For this reason William has sometimes also been called a "terminist", to distinguish him from a nominalist or a conceptualist. He was criticized for this belief by his fellow theologians and philosophers.
This maxim, as interpreted by Bertrand Russell states that if one can explain a phenomenon without assuming this or that hypothetical entity, there is no ground for assuming it, i.What was the role of kings in feudal societies of middle ages when all authority was between feudal lords and priests?
part of the answer to your question can be found by looking at where medieval kings came from: they were originally the tribal leaders with the military, political, and diplomatic skills to carve out kingdoms of their own. As a follow up to an earlier piece about the validity of reproductions as art, here is an article about an image produced by three computer developers with no background in art, which sold for a staggering $, AI - artificial intelligence - is the latest fad artist, it seems.
Artificial intelligence is not intelligence as a Catholic would understand the term. Who is a True Knight? 2 In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s book, T he History of the Kings of Malory often exemplifies feudal virtues and exploits, but often parallels his fighting abilities to Lancelot (Kennedy ).
representation of violence and death in Morte Darthur follows the preconceived nature of medieval knights as warriors ( While the glorification of single motherhood in America continues to pave the way for the destruction of Western Civilization, the importance of fathers is only recently .
[The following is a transcription of Igor Shafarevich's The Socialist caninariojana.com work was originally published in Russian in France under the title Sotsializm kak iavlenie mirovoi istorii in , by YMCA Press.
An English translation was subsequently published in by Harper & Row. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.