Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty — Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. Inthe Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens overthrew the Liao dynasty and attempted to gain control over former Liao territory in Mongolia. In the s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings, successfully resisted the Khamag Mongol confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khangreat-grandfather of Genghis Khan.
The Roman Empire and the Kushan Empire which ruled territory in what is now northern India also benefitted from the commerce created by the route along the Silk Road. Silk Road to China The Silk Road routes included a large network of strategically located trading posts, markets and thoroughfares designed to streamline the transport, exchange, distribution and storage of goods.
From Seleucia, routes passed eastward over the Zagros Mountains to the cities of Ecbatana Iran and Merv Turkmenistanfrom which additional routes traversed to modern-day Afghanistan and eastward into Mongolia and China.
Silk Road routes also led to ports on the Persian Gulf, where goods were then transported up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Routes from these cities also connected to ports along the Mediterranean Sea, from which goods were shipped to cities throughout the Roman Empire and into Europe.
Trade along the so-called Silk Road economic belt included fruits and vegetables, livestock, grain, leather and hides, tools, religious objects, artwork, precious stones and metals and—perhaps more importantly—language, culture, religious beliefs, philosophy and science.
Commodities such as paper and gunpowder, both invented by the Chinese during the Han Dynasty, had obvious and lasting impacts on culture and history in the West. They were also among the most-traded items between the East and West.
Paper was invented in China during the 3rd century B. The eventual development of the Gutenberg press allowed for the mass production of books and, later, newspaper, which enabled a wider exchange of news and information. Silk Road Spices In addition, the rich spices of the East quickly became popular in the West, and changed cuisine across much of Europe.
Similarly, techniques for making glass migrated eastward to China from the Islamic world.
The origins of gunpowder are less well known, although there are references to fireworks and firearms in China as early as the s.
Historians believe that gunpowder was indeed exported along the Silk Road routes to Europe, where it was further refined for use in cannons in England, France and elsewhere in the s. The nation-states with access to it had obvious advantages in war, and thus the export of gunpowder had an enormous impact on the political history of Europe.
Eastward Exploration The Silk Road routes also opened up means of passage for explorers seeking to better understand the culture and geography of the Far East. Venetian explorer Marco Polo famously used the Silk Road to travel from Italy to China, which was then under the control of the Mongolian Empire, where they arrived in Notably, they did not travel by boat, but rather by camel following overland routes.
They arrived at Xanadu, the lavish summer palace of the Mongolian emperor Kublai Khan.
His journeys across the Silk Road became the basis for his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, which gave Europeans a better understanding of Asian commerce and culture. Sources List of Rulers of Ancient Greece. Trade between the Romans and the Empires of Asia.
About the Silk Road: The Legacy of the Silk Road. Edited by Robert B.Soon the Mongol Empire stretched all over China and into Afghanistan, through much ofthe Middle East and into Europe as far as Poland.
Fast safe lanes ofcommunicationwere essential in order to control such a huge empire. One of these was the Silk Route, and. Mongol empire: The Mongol empire was founded by Genghis Khan in It extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Danube River and the Persian Gulf.
Mongol: Rise of the Mongol empire. Among the tribes that held power in Mongolia were the Xiongnu, Silk Road; Mongol empire Portion of the ruins of the ancient city of Jiaohe. Mongol Empire – The Silk Road Once established, the Mongol Empire became a peaceful political environment that allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East, and Asia.
This openness meant that these previously separate worlds could begin to trade with each other. The Mongol Empire revitalized trade on the Silk Road, stretching Chinese silk as far as the shores of Italy.
The global impact of the trade and conquest led by the Mongols was the last wide-spread, land-based global exchange known to mankind. Aug 21, · The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China and the Far East with the Middle East and Europe. Established when the Han Dynasty in .
During the Mongol Empire, merchants found protection, status, tax exemption, loans and consistent aid from the Khans. For the years of the height of the Empire, the East-West Mongol trade routes became the fabled Silk Road which for the first time linked Europe to Asia, allowing the free flow of ideas, technologies and goods.